Revista Polo del Conocimiento


Polo del Conocimiento

 

 

The evolution of Flipped Classroom and its immersion in higher education

 

La evolucin de Flipped Classroom y su inmersin en la educacin superior

 

A evoluo da Flipped Classroom e sua imerso no ensino superior

 

 

Martha Luca Lara-Freire I
martha.lara@unae.edu.ec 
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5698-1931
Wilson Gonzalo Rojas-Yumisaca II
wilson.rojas@espoch.edu.ec 
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0302-3315
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Correspondencia: [email protected]

 

 

Ciencias de la Educacin

Artculo de Investigacin

 

 

* Recibido: 25 de abril de 2022 *Aceptado: 20 de mayo de 2022 * Publicado: 19 de Junio de 2022

 

 

        I.            Magster en Lingstica Aplicada al Aprendizaje del Ingls, Docente de la Universidad Nacional de Educacin, UNAE, Azogues, Ecuador.

     II.            Magister en Enseanza del Idioma Ingls como Lengua Extranjera, Docente de la Escuela Superior Politcnica de Chimborazo, ESPOCH, Riobamba, Ecuador.


Abstract

The objective of this literature review in the format of reflective writing was to present a critical analysis about the evolution of flipped classroom and its implementation in higher education. The level of the study was descriptive and narrative. The researchers present relevant findings as well as teachers experiences which highly contribute to the teaching-learning of English improvement. The main data collection sources were Google scholar, Dspace, digital repositories, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and the web. Considering that, the provided information comes from documents which have gone through an exhaustive revision process such as blind review and peer review. The researchers concluded that reviewing literature, getting trained, and sharing experiences among teachers is a priority since in that way educators can present new alternatives and solutions to students learning process which does not necessarily have to be focused only on knowledge or language acquisition, but also to prepare our students with values, skills, and self-awareness to face life challenges in their future workplace. More than a recommendation, the researchers present an invitation for teachers to dig into the flipped classroom model and take advantage of its benefits.

Key words: autonomy; profession; reflection; active learning; flip.

 

Resumo

El objetivo de esta revisin bibliogrfica en formato de escritura reflexiva fue presentar un anlisis crtico sobre la evolucin del aula invertida y su implementacin en la educacin superior. El nivel del estudio fue descriptivo y narrativo. Los investigadores presentan hallazgos relevantes, as como experiencias de docentes que contribuyen en gran medida al mejoramiento del proceso de enseanza-aprendizaje del ingls. Las principales Fuentes de recoleccin de datos fueron Google Scholar, Dspace, repositorios digitales, Science Direct, SCOPUS y la web. Considerando eso, la informacin provista proviene de documentos que han pasado por un proceso de revisin exhaustivo como revisin ciega y revisin por pares. Los investigadores concluyeron que revisar la literatura, capacitarse y compartir experiencias entre los docentes es una prioridad, ya que de esa manera los educadores pueden presentar nuevas alternativas y soluciones al proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, que no necesariamente tiene que estar enfocados solamente en el conocimiento o la adquisicin del lenguaje, sino tambin preparar a nuestros estudiantes con valores, habilidades y autoconciencia para enfrentar los desafos de la vida en su futuro laboral. Ms que una recomendacin, los investigadores presentan una invitacin para que los docentes profundicen en el modelo de aula invertida y aprovechen sus beneficios.

Palabras clave: autonoma; profesin; reflexin; aprendizaje active; invertir.

 

Resumo

O objetivo desta reviso bibliogrfica em formato de escrita reflexiva foi apresentar uma anlise crtica da evoluo da sala de aula invertida e sua implementao no ensino superior. O nvel do estudo foi descritivo e narrativo. Os pesquisadores apresentam achados relevantes, bem como experincias de professores que muito contribuem para a melhoria do processo de ensino-aprendizagem de ingls. As principais fontes de coleta de dados foram Google Scholar, Dspace, repositrios digitais, Science Direct, SCOPUS e a web. Considerando isso, as informaes fornecidas so provenientes de documentos que passaram por um processo de reviso minucioso, como reviso cega e reviso por pares. Os pesquisadores concluram que a reviso da literatura, a formao e o compartilhamento de experincias entre os professores uma prioridade, pois dessa forma os educadores podem apresentar novas alternativas e solues para o processo de aprendizagem dos alunos, que no necessariamente precisa estar focado apenas no conhecimento ou na linguagem. aquisio, mas tambm para preparar nossos alunos com valores, habilidades e autoconscincia para enfrentar os desafios da vida em seu trabalho futuro. Mais do que uma recomendao, os pesquisadores apresentam um convite para que os professores se aprofundem no modelo de sala de aula invertida e aproveitem seus benefcios.

Palavras-chave: autonomia; profisso; reflexo; aprendizado ativo; investir.

 

Introduction

This reflection paper starts with a question, how many teachers have actually taken the time to read about the history behind a successful model, theory, or strategy for English teaching? To proceed, one of the researchers shares about the flipped classroom experience. I clearly remember, it was 2014 and I was completing my Master Degree program and an excellent teacher, the best of the program in my personal opinion, asked the students to present a proposal for their thesis. I was worried because I did not feel passionate about any topic, but I started to search for information on the web and I discovered flipped classroom, back then it was an innovative strategy or model which was somehow unknown by many researchers and English teachers; nevertheless, it called my attention, I felt curious and I decided to develop my final thesis about this model, flipped classroom.

Then, what was the beginning? This model is the result of the passion, commitment, and fellowship of two teachers, Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams who did not dedicate their time to cover content or complete their hours of class, but to observe and understand the situation, problems, and needs of their students.

In 2006, Bergmann and Sams realized their students were not only missing classes, but also asking them to reteach those classes. They made a profound analysis and came to the conclusion that their students need them physically present when they got stuck and needed individual help. Therefore, they thought about recording all their lectures, so students can watch the videos as homework and then they could use the class or tutoring hours to help students with the concepts they did not understand; and this is how flipped classroom was born. Jonathan and Aaron dedicated long hours to record the sessions according to their planning until they completed all the units in their program, which was related to teaching Chemistry.

Thus, what are the main characteristics of the flipped classroom model? In the traditional model, students usually come into class with some doubts or questions then have about the homework which was sent the day before; for that reason, teachers generally spend the first 25 minutes doing a warm-up activity and going over the content they did not understand. After that, the teacher presents new content for 30 to 45 minutes and spend the remainder of the class with independent practice. In the flipped model, the time is completely restructured. Students still need to ask questions about the contact that has been delivered via video; then, the teacher answers the questions during the first few minutes of class; in this way, the misconceptions are cleared up before students practice and apply them incorrectly. The remainder of the time is used for more extensive hands-on activities and directed problem-solving time (see Table 1).

 

Table 1: Comparison of class time in traditional versus flipped classrooms

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note: This table demonstrate the main difference regarding time organization in a tradition and flipped classroom. It was taken from the book Flipped your classroom.

The flipped classroom model is clearly centered around the students and not the teacher. Students are responsible for viewing the videos and asking appropriate questions. The teacher is simply there to provide expert feedback. The students are responsible for completing and sharing their work. Because a solution guide is available, students are motivated to learn, not to just complete the assignments in a rote manner. The role of the teacher in the classroom is to help students, not to deliver information (Bergman & Sams, 2012).

Undoubtedly, this model constituted a boom when it was first promoted worldwide and that has been the main motivation to continue researching on it so its implementation in the classroom could be a meaningful experience for the students.

Therefore, as Jonathan and Aaron, what is needed is the commitment, curiosity, and interest of teachers, like the researchers of this paper, to make the difference in education, in this case, in the English as a Foreign Language classroom.

For the abovementioned and due to the deep researchers interest, the objectives of this paper are the following.

General objective:

       To present a critical analysis about the evolution of flipped classroom and its implementation in higher education.

Specific objectives:

       To make a review of the flipped classroom evolution.

       To collect the most relevant findings from background studies related to flipped classroom and English language teaching.

       To comment on the Pedagogical Model of the Universidad Nacional de Educacin (UNAE) with respect to flipped classroom.

       To present experiences related to the implementation of the flipped classroom in higher education.

Literature Review

The evolution of flipped classroom

The basic idea of the Flipped Classroom is simple; the students watch online video tutorials outside of the class so that the class time can be devoted to learning activities that are active and peer based. Flipping your classroom results in a more engaging learning experience for the students since they can learn the material more deeply, and they also learn how to apply their knowledge to real problems.

However, the Flipped Classroom also represents some challenges, which unfortunately some teachers are not willing to take. This model requires for the teacher to take significant time to create or locate the video tutorials that the students will watch outside the class. In addition, if a teacher decides to flip the classroom, they have to implement strategies that ensure students actually watch the video tutorials before coming to class (Cortese, Greif, & Charco, 2022).

Around 2007, two high school teachers from Colorado discovered a software tool that allowed them to narrate and record PowerPoint presentations. Using this tool, they recorder their lectures and posted them online as video tutorials so that students who missed classes could catch up. Before long, Bergman and Sams realized that their video tutorials were used not only by students who missed class, but by other students who wanted to review the lectures that they had already attended.

In the same year, a financial analyst named Salam Khan began creating short video tutorials in mathematics for his nephew, and he posted them on You Tube. These video tutorials soon developed a larger following of other students who needed tutoring in math. Later, Khan established the Khan Academy, whose mission was to create numerous video tutorials in all kinds of disciplines.

Thanks to these and similar initiatives, which are explained in this paper, the idea of delivering content to students via short online began to spread, including into higher education. Educators also realized that by delivering content via online videos outside the class, they could free up valuable class time for more productive and effective learning activities. This change in teaching practice came to be known as the Flipped Classroom (Soliman, 2016).

Nevertheless, the story does not finish there. The initiatives and desire to continue shaping this model conduct to the creation of flipped learning.

While often defined simplistically as schoolwork at home and homework at school. Flipped learning is an approach that allows teachers to implement a methodology, or various methodologies, in their classrooms. Meaning, contrary to what some teachers and researchers think, flipping a class can, but does not necessarily, lead to Flipped Learning. Many teachers may already flip their classes by having students read text outside the class, watch supplemental videos, or solve additional problems, but to engage in the Flipped Learning, teachers must incorporate the following four pillars into their practice.

Flexible environment. Flipped Learning allows for a variety mode; educators often physically rearrange their learning spaces to accommodate a lesson or unit, to support either group work or independent study. They create flexible spaces in which students choose when and where they learn. Furthermore, educators who flip their classes are flexible in their expectations of students timelines for learning and their assessments of study learning.

Learning Culture. in the traditional teacher-centered model, the teacher is the primary source of information. By contrast, the Flipped Learning model deliberately shifts instruction to a learner-centered approach, where in-class time is dedicated to exploring topics in greater, depth, and creating rich learning opportunities. As a result, students are actively involved in knowledge construction as they participate in and evaluate their learning in a manner that is personally meaningful.

Intentional Content. Flipped Learning educators continually think about how they can use the Flipped Learning model to help students develop conceptual understanding, as well as procedural fluency. They determine what they need to teach and what materials students should explore on their own. Educators use intentional content to maximize classroom time in order to adopt methods of student-centered, active learning, strategies, depending on grade, level, and subject matter.

Professional Educator. the role of a Professional Educator is even more important, and often more demanding, in a Flipped Classroom than in a traditional one. During class time, they continually observe their students providing them with feedback relevant in that moment and assessing their work. Professional Educators are reflective in their practice, connect with each other to improve their instruction, accept constructive criticism, and tolerate controlled chaos in their classrooms. While Professional Educators take on less visibly prominent roles in a flipped classroom, they remain the essential ingredient that enables Flipped Learning to occur (Daniels, Bennett, & Marshall, 2016).

Considering reflective teaching as part of the Flipped Learning model is an aspect all teachers should observe, we do not have to forget the service nature of our role in society. Being able to identify our weaknesses with a view to evolution and innovation is a skill all teachers must develop in this amazing life experience which is teaching.

As flipped learning, the type of learning that occurs within a flipped classroom, becomes part of the academic vernacular so does the need to develop a clear definition of flipped learning and an understanding of how it works or why it works based on theoretical frameworks. The broadest definition of flipped learning is one that proposes that assigning readings to give the students prior exposure to new material is a form of flipped learning. The narrowest definition, on the other hand, limits the concept of flipped learning to instances where educators use technology, especially videos, to transmit information outside of class. In the extant literature, the researchers who are often credited as the originators of the flipped learning concept, defined flipping or inverting the classroom as an instructional method in which events that have traditionally taken place inside the classroom now take place outside the classroom and vice versa. Interpretation of this definition can be quite general and this can create the idea of an unstructured classroom design; however, using this definition as a starting point can provide teachers with a certain amount of flexibility as well as give them the freedom to employ flipped learning using various methods. One drawback when using this broad definition of flipped learning is that it could be difficult to assess effectiveness. Others researchers have defined flipped learning in a more pedagogical view where the transmission of information takes place out of the classroom, whereas assimilation takes place in the classroom (Eppard & Rochdi, 2017).

Flipped learning is a methodology that helps teachers to prioritize active learning during class time by assigning students lecture materials and presentations to be viewed at home or outside class. One of the most exciting advancements in the modern classroom is flipped learning. It hinges on the idea that students learn more effectively by using class time for small group activities and individual attention. Teachers then assign students lecture materials and presentations to be viewed at home or outside of the classroom day, prioritizing active learning.

According to the Flipped Learning Network, flipped learning is all about creating opportunities for active engagement. It is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter. The flipped learning approach is gaining traction every year. According to a 2014 survey, 78 percent of teachers had implemented flipped learning in their classes, and 96 percent of those teachers recommend it. This indicates that flipped learning inspires teachers to update traditional methods and bring new technology into their classrooms through the use of video, screencasts, and others.

In addition, by implementing this approach, teachers are able to spend more time with struggling students while allowing more advanced learners the freedom to work ahead. This means large-scale differentiated instruction, built into the curriculum at every opportunity (Diamong A. , 2016).

Flipped learning is an increasingly popular pedagogy in secondary and higher education. Students who are learning with this approach view digitized or online lectures as pre-class homework, then they spend in-class time engaged in active learning experiences such as discussions, peer teaching, presentations, projects, problem solving, computations, and group activities. In other words, this strategy flips the typical presentation of content, where class time is used for lectures and example problems, and homework consists of problem sets or group project work.

Flipped learning is not simply a fad. There is theoretical support focused on promoting student learning. According to the constructivist theory, active learning enables students to create their own knowledge by building upon pre-existing cognitive frameworks, resulting in a deeper level of learning than occurs in more passive learning settings. Another theoretical advantage of flipped learning is that it allows students to incorporate foundational information into their long-term memory prior to class. This lightens the cognitive load during class, so that students can form new and deeper connections and develop more complex ideas. Additionally, classroom activities in the flipped model can be intentionally designed to teach students valuable intra- and interpersonal skills (Roehling & Bredow, 2021).

Since 2012, the research literature on the effectiveness of flipped learning has grown exponentially, which has brought new findings and contributed to flipped learning, as is the case of flipped learning 2.0.

Flipped learning has been a commonly used buzzword in education for several years now, and everyone has different feelings about it. Flipped learning is an approach that blends face-to-face interaction in the classroom with independent study outside of it, often through viewing assigned video content. Nevertheless, most teachers and instructors of all levels, from grade school through university, simply are not using videos to its fullest potential in their flipped classrooms. Therefore, how can teachers and instructors take flipped learning model to the next level: Flipped Learning 2.0? The answer is crating short, engaging, and interactive videos that students actually want to watch, and encouraging students to create their own video content.

Teachers must take into consideration that two- or five-minute-long videos are more digestible and memorable than speeches that last an entire class length, the videos must give students the opportunity to feed their natural curiosities without disrupting a classroom agenda or completely digitizing the role of a teacher. This means that the recipe for a successful video is keeping it short, including the teachers voice in the narration and incorporating multiple modalities like drawing or demonstration. So, instead of simply recording the teachers voice walking through a slideshow, or filming themselves talking about a topic, educators should consider creating more exploratory and visually stimulating videos.

An innovative change could also be to include virtual field trips, which the teacher can use to provide student with visual clues about the place and then ask students to compare the video to a reference table the teacher provided so students can guess the name of the place and describe its characteristics.

A common misconception of todays students is that because they grew up during the digital age, they are inherently masters of technology. Nonetheless, that is not the case. Many students have been creating their own videos and sharing them on social media for most of their lives, but that is often where their technical expertise ends.

Effectively communicating through visual media is an important modern skill in almost every career a student may pursue; therefore, educators should be able to teach students how to use the technologies necessary to create engaging, informative video content. Learning by teaching is an extremely effective way to absorb material, so teachers and instructors should give students the opportunity to teach their fellow classmates through video instead of just watching the video instructors provide.

As a contribution to the fulfilment of this new form of flipped learning, schools are providing students with platforms that allow for easy, private uploading of videos only accessible to instructors or classmates, as is the case of Moodle. Further, these custom video platforms for educational institutions also allow a greater range of features that are necessary for education accessibility, like audio descriptions of visual media, automatic video, closed captions, interactive video transcripts and more. This ensures that all students, no matter their abilities, have access to all course video content. Then, teachers do not simply create your existing classroom content; make it fully interactive and engaging; in this way, students can take full advantage of the benefits of video technology, that is Flipped Learning 2.0 or the future of flipped learning (Nadzan, 2018).

Unquestionably, Flipped Learning has evolved rapidly, and thanks to teachers and researchers, there will be more to do and implement in our classrooms to create unforgettable memories and meaningful learning in our students.

Background studies related to flipped classroom and English language teaching

As mentioned before, there are several studies about the characteristics and evolution of the flipped classroom; nonetheless, three are analyzing in this paper.

The first one was conducted in Shanghai, China. The aim of the study was to discuss the benefits and challenges of flipped learning in teaching English as a Foreign Language through a systematic review. Prior concluding the review, 78 studies published in journals which are indexed in Web of Science, ERIC, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS, IGI Global, and Wiley Online Library databases were selected in accordance with a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The researcher indicates that according to the findings, there is an increase in the publications on the implementation of flipped learning in teacher English as a Foreign language, the majority of these students include university student as participants. Regarding the benefits of the flipped teaching approach, it could be learnt that it has positive effects on enhancing students English language skills such as writing and speaking; however, some of the difficulties students face when using the flipped learning approach is the lack or poor quality of Internet access. Besides, teachers and students consider that separating time exclusively to watch or record the videos could be a challenge.

In addition, the researcher mentions that even though flipped learning goes back to early-mid of the 2000s, it does not have a long history in the field of teaching English as a Foreign Language. Finally, the researcher recommends further research to investigate students learning styles, cognitive, and metacognitive strategies as flipped learning is potentially a stepping-stone to a better language teaching with a more enriched, innovative, flexible, learner-driven environment. Flipped learning is at its heart an act of promising pedagogy for teaching English as a Foreign Language (Arslan, 2020).

As a contribution to this study, it is necessary to mention that flipped learning has still a long and promising path to walk through and it is the teachers job to find a way to take advantage of the benefits of this model, considering that it is student-centered approach that fosters autonomy, reflection, and active learning.

The second study entitled Flipped Learning in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom: Outcomes and Perceptions was undertaken in four sections of the same College, English 1 course over two consecutive semesters at a South Korean university. The participants were 79 students, 39 students learned English using the Communicative Language Teaching approach, whereas 40 students develop their English learning process under the Flipped Learning model. The results demonstrated that students in the flipped classroom performed better in their grades than those in the non-flipped classroom. The average final grade of the students in the flipped classroom was 60.31 out of 80 points, whereas the students in the non-flipped classroom achieved an average grade of 57.19. However, these results were found to be statistically insignificant. Regarding the findings of the three survey which were applied during the study, the second and third focused on the students responses to the flipped approach, the students mentioned that they perceived the flipped learning approach as an effective means of learning English. Some of the reasons were that they are able to review the videos at their own pace; also, they indicated that they had more opportunities to talk in English which reduced their fear to speak English gradually. Furthermore, they received more feedback from their classmates and teachers, and they had more time to practice content. From the surveyed students, only four mentioned they did not like the flipped learning method because it requires for them to complete too much homework and activities outside of class time; one student indicated that since they had to watch the videos at home, they could not be monitored by the teacher.

In regard to the students perception of flipped learning survey, students in the flipped classroom were found to be more engaged in the learning process throughout the term than those in the non-flipped classroom, since they asked more questions and sought more feedback from the instructor compared to the non-flipped group.

The researchers of this study concluded that despite the overwhelming process of implanting the flipped intervention and the data collection and analysis, the flipped experience was rewarding for the teachers-researchers; considering that they experienced collaborative work and they were able to examine their teaching practice and reduce some level of anxiety and workload. However, it is recommended that the teachers review the curriculum and decide on forms of class materials and assessment criteria, creating visual material, teaching classes and observing students engagement, keeping notes after each class, and reflecting on ones practice in particular all take extra time. Finally, the researchers also recommended for the teachers to assure the quality of the online tutorials by including interactive activities and considering recording the videos for the lower levels first in their mother tongue while scaffolding their lessons (Lee & Wallace, 2018).

This study fulfills the essence of a research since it was developed in two semester which gave the researchers sufficient data to be analyzed and through observation, they could analyze the students reaction and responses. Nevertheless, we do not completely agree with the recommendation of recording the videos in the students mother tongue, as the main purpose should be for them to get familiar with the L2 since the beginning of their instruction.

Before presenting the last background study it must be mentioned that in Ecuador, flipped classroom was known around 2015, in that year teachers-researchers started to become interested in this new approach. However, as it has evolved, teachers have also continuously been looking for improvements on their teaching practices through the implementation of the flipped classroom or flipped learning in their classes.

The third study was conducted in Ecuador, Ambato city in the UNIANDES University, the participants were 18 undergraduate students from different careers. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom approach to enhance the English oral fluency of students who were attending the Second Level of English. The researcher applied a pre-test and a post-test based on the KET speaking exam of Cambridge and also a perception survey. The results of the paired-sample t-test done through the SPSS software revealed that there was a significant difference between the pre and the post oral fluency tests t (17) = -6.70, p˂0.001. It was also found that the English oral fluency of the learners increased gradually after the implementation of the flipped oral production activities. Furthermore, the participants held a positive attitude towards the asynchronous institutional videos, pair and group work, and the use of technological tools to enhance oral fluency.

The researcher concluded that there was an evident increase of the English oral fluency on the students after the application of the flipped classroom approach with an overall post-test score of 4,58 compared with the pretest score 3,11. In regard to the survey results, 56% of the students showed positive attitude towards the use of technological tools to develop their oral fluency during the implementation of the flipped classroom approach. Moreover, 50% of the overall survey results demonstrated that students felt a positive attitude about the synchronous speaking activities based on the flipped classroom approach, since they had more time to speak in English and improve their English oral fluency. Finally, the researcher recommends the use of technological tools such as SpeakPipe, Flipgrid, VoiceThread, and WhatsApp to develop the students oral fluency. The study was conducted during five sessions; then it is recommended to implement the flipped classroom approach in more sessions to take advantage of all its benefits (Snchez G. , 2021).

This last study contributes significatively to the teaching process in the researchers context; nonetheless, we consider the study should have counted with more participants to offer more reliable information; in addition, the intervention should have been longer, at least 24 sessions (Hernndez-Sampieri, Metodologa de la investigacin, 2018).

The Pedagogical Model of the Universidad Nacional de Educacin (UNAE) with respect to flipped classroom

The National University of Education (UNAE) is a public university located in Javier Loyola, Azogues, Caar, Ecuador. It was founded with the objective of changing the productive matrix of Ecuador on May 27, 2015.

The universitys pedagogical model considers the student as the protagonist; the teachers guide, stimulate, provoke, help, and open horizons through personal tutoring. By transferring teaching to from lecturing to tutoring, students can understand themselves and develop their own life project, professional project, and the necessary competences to be teachers in the 21st century and the digital era.

At UNAE there is passion for innovation, commitment with inclusion, value for the interculturality, and focus on internationalization.

However, what is relevant to this study is that one of the principles of the university pedagogical model is to promote the Flipped Classroom, the virtual social networks, the digital platforms; taking advantage of the digital design tools, virtual cooperative spaces, and 3D tools with the purpose of fostering digital competences as active and creative users (Gmez, 2017).

Including Flipped Classroom as part of a Pedagogical Model only proves its relevance and effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, regardless the subject or the context. Then, teachers must consider learning more about this model so our students will not lose the opportunity to be active part of their learning process while they enjoy working with technology and develop their autonomy.

Experiences related to the implementation of the flipped classroom in higher education.

The book entitled The Flipped Classroom Practice and Practices in Higher Education represents a great contribution for this study; for that reason, this section is directly dedicated to analyzing some of the information provided by the books authors.

According to the authors, flipped learning is an important transition stage, it is moving both students and academic staff away from traditional lectures, an approach that has been in use since the Middle Ages. Classrooms are becoming places for activity rather than information transfer. Whether the students watch the videos before class or after class may not matter too much. What matters is that they are deeply engaged in real problem-solving. There are a range of pedagogies that emphasize active learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning, inquiry-based learning. team-based learning to name a few. Each one of these approaches as flipped learning, expects students to find information for themselves and share it with the team, an important skill for future workplace. These pedagogies represent the next step beyond flipped learning. Students acquire knowledge and skills online and use them to solve or address a real problem or opportunity. Teachers may still provide some scaffolding in this process, particularly in the first year of university. However, that will diminish over time as more and more students are independent learners by the time they get to the university.

Active-based learning enables more open-ended and self-pace learning. Increasingly, students will use e-portfolio to document their learning achievements and to plan their next steps from both a career and learning perspective. The e-portfolio will be the sum total of these experiences, demonstrating achievement of fundamental knowledge and the ability to apply such knowledge in complex situations. The days of four years of full-time study at university may be over for many students. Currently, students come to university and endure at least the first two years learning basics, mostly through drills and practice classes, delivered in traditional ways. There is always at least one subject where they get a sense of what is that a professional does and how they do it. Years 3 and 4 are often application years and extensions of the fundamentals into deeper understanding of the discipline.

Flipped learning is transforming years one and two. Students can move ahead at their own pace and use class time to catch up with academic staff in case of difficulties. In most engineering, science, and health curricula, there is a clear separation of theory and practice-learn scientific analysis skills in one subject and practice those skills is another subject, applying them to a real situation, for example, a design task, an experiment, or a clinical situation.

Creating a real setting for students is a plus, higher education teachers must keep in mind that university is the stage of a students life where they have to get ready for real life, workplace, unknown situations, and challenges.

In addition to concepts and perceptions, the book authors also present some teachers experiences about the implementation of the flipped classroom in their lessons; however, since the area of research is English teaching, one specific case has been chosen for analysis.

The experience is related to flipping the classroom to teach the English and literacy. The teacher mentioned that implementing this model gave her fresh insights about how the approach aligns with preparing the students for their work as classroom teachers. According to the teacher, flipping the classroom has created an imperative for students to engage with course content beforehand because they recognize that they will need to call on the information to practice effectively in workshop activities. Compared with the work of teachers, the flipped classroom has required pre-service teachers to begin the process of thinking about learning in the same way that teachers do before their face-to-face classroom work.

This is particularly significant when considered in light of the course structure designed to connect online (gateway knowledge), workshop activities (cornerstone knowledge), and long-term projects (capstone knowledge) since flipping the classroom may be seen to facilitate the student reflectivity and reflexivity. Teachers must understand reflectivity as a tool to promote student and teacher learning, to build understanding; therefore, it is necessary to activate prior reflections; then confront and build on prior experiences and knowledge. However, equally important is reflexivity which involves privileging the perspectives of others by suspending our own assumptions in order to understand what someone else brings to their understanding, learning, and practice.

Attention to the nexus between individual and collective learning throughout the course, highlights how the flipped classroom approach may pave the way for such a cyclical reflexive process to occur. For example, the online materials stimulate reflective thought which opens up possibilities for not only action but also reaction through the collaborative work of sharing and exchanging knowledge, ideas, and information about teaching and learning during workshop and project activities.

By providing an appropriate structure, a flipped classroom approach has thus assisted to inculcate the notion of ethics of responsibility among students, subsequently generating a positive, professional learning climate. Recognizing how flipped classroom approach can encourage a disposition of ethics of responsibility for participating productively in a community of practice is also valuable when considering how to effectively prepare preservice teachers for their future professional work.

The teacher experience has help her to realize that students who have been learning with the flipped classroom approach considered the subject of English challenging; nonetheless, in this specific class, they were able to enhance their confidence about learning by enabling them to pace their construction of knowledge of topics and concepts between times and allaying their concerns about perceived knowledge deficiencies being exposed during class.

Finally, this English teacher states that high academic student achievement may be attributable to more engaged time on task throughout the course made possible because of increased opportunities for all students to participate effectively. The teacher also mentions that given that flipping the classroom appears to enable students to experience the notion of ethics of responsibility in practice, the approach accords with multiliteracies pedagogy which seeks to build a repertoire of practices for acknowledging student differences, interests, and prior knowledge as valuable teaching and learning resources. This may have contributed to overall student success in the course while simultaneously providing an example of good practice in multiliteracies pedagogy for teaching English and literacy in their future classrooms (Reidsema, Kavanagh, Hadgraft, & Smith, 2017).

We highly value the support teachers give teachers through this kind of publications, books, articles, reflections which contribute to join forces and give students the necessary resources to face a challenging somehow complicating, but rewarding stage of their life which is to find and job and demonstrate the excellent professionals they have become, not only through knowledge, but also values.

As an additional contribution we would like to include the experience one of this study researcher had six years ago. As mentioned in the introduction, the first encounter the teacher had with the flipped classroom was when she was studying to obtain her masters degree, since then, the curiosity and desire of learning more about flipped classroom has just increased.

In the study entitled Flipped teaching method implementation to improve level fourth students high order thinking skills at Escuela Superior Politcnica de Chimborazo during the academic period March 2015-july 2015, the researcher focused more on how to flip the blooms taxonomy thinking skills. The main objective of the study was to prove the effectiveness of the flipped teaching method, lesson plans, and material created by the teacher in the improvement of students high order thinking skills (Lara, 2016).

Overall, the most relevant experience was to see the reaction of students to the video tutorials presented and recorded by the teacher which main purpose was to avoid assigning class time to explain the grammar. Students had to view the videos at home, at their own pace and bring questions or doubts for the teacher to clarify them; in that way, the teacher had more time to dedicate to practice.

As part of this study, the researcher contributed with a guide called Think with practical and friendly activities teachers could use in their English classes and a set of video tutorials which were uploaded and are available in YouTube.

Now that we can reflect on the implementation of flipped classroom in higher education, we can just add that technology should be the best allied for teachers. Recording videos, it is easier now we have tools such as Soapbox, Filmora, Tik Tok or even our own cellphones. Hence, we invite teachers and students to live the flipped classroom experience.

 

Methods and Materials

This study is a combination of literature review and reflecting writing. The aim is to go through the history and evolution of flipped classroom as to present relevant studies, facts, and experiences of other teachers regarding the implementation of this innovative and effective approach.

The publications and studies included in this paper present reliable and valuable information which helped the researchers explore deeply about the changes and improvements made to the flip model.

The information from books supported the relevance of this study by presenting significant findings and recommendations for teachers of all subjects giving us the possibility to open our minds to active teaching, reflection, and continuous training.

The collected information was organized chronologically; additionally, international, and local studies were included. The analysis includes the objectives, most relevant findings, conclusions, and recommendations (Arias, 2012).

The main data collection sources were Google scholar, Dspace, digital repositories, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and the web. Considering that, the provided information comes from documents which have gone through an exhaustive revision process such as blind review and peer review.

The level of the research is descriptive and narrative; however, the reflection also plays a meaningful role in this study. The researchers not only collect, organize, present information, but also reflect on it so that the findings could be useful and remarkable for future investigations (Hernndez-Sampieri, Metodologa de la investigacin: las rutas cuantivativa, cualitativa y mixta, 2018). Furthermore, the researchers share their experiences regarding the flipped classroom model (Hernndez-Sampieri, Metodologa de la investigacin: las rutas cuantivativa, cualitativa y mixta, 2018).

 

Conclusions

Walking through history and leaning about the advances of the flipped classroom model has been an amazing experience. After presented and analyzing the new characteristics of the approach, the contribution of some researchers, and sharing experiences, we present the following conclusions.

           Flipped classroom has clearly evolve since it contributes to active learning development as well as to foster a sense of responsibility and independence in the learners.

           Even though, there has not been a significant quantity of studies, it could be proved that implementing the flipped classroom approach in the English classes promotes students confidence since they do not come to class with empty hands, but with some prior knowledge, doubts, and questions to discuss in class.

           The relevance of the flipped classroom model is demonstrated in its insertion in pedagogical models of prestigious universities.

           Teachers experiences are a valuable tool for improvement and progression. By reading and implementing these experiences in the classroom, teachers could be part of a change and the success of students in their future workplace.

 

Referencias

1.      Arias, F. (2012). El proyecto de investigacin: Introduccin a la metdologa cientfica . Editorial Episteme.

2.      Arslan, A. (2020). A systematic review on flipped learning in teaching English as a foreign or second language. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 16(2), 775-797.

3.      Bergman, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom. Oregon: International Society for Technology in Education.

4.      Daniels, K., Bennett, B., & Marshall, H. (2016). Flipped Learning. Retrieved from www.flippedlearning.org/definition

5.      David Johnson, R. J. (1999). El aprendizaje cooperativo. Buenos Aires: Editorial Paids SAICF .

6.      Diamong, A. (2016). Lesley University. Obtenido de https://lesley.edu/article/an-introduction-to-flipped-learning#:~:text=Flipped%20learning%20is%20a%20methodology,modern%20classroom%20is%20flipped%20learning.

7.      Eppard, J., & Rochdi, A. (2017). A framework for flipped learning. Eric.

8.      Gmez, A. P. (2017). Modelo Pedaggico UNAE. Universidad Nacional de Educacin del Ecuador.

9.      Hernndez-Sampieri, R. (2018). Metodologa de la investigacin. McGraw Hill Education.

10.  Hernndez-Sampieri, R. (2018). Metodologa de la investigacin: las rutas cuantivativa, cualitativa y mixta. McGraw Hill.

11.  Lara, M. (2016). Flipped teaching method implementation to improve level fourth students' high order thinking skills at Escuela Superior Politcnica de Chimborazo during the academic period March 2015- July 2015. Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo.

12.  Lee, G., & Wallace, A. (2018). Flipped Learning in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom: Outcomes and Perceptions. TESOL QUARTERLY , 52(1). doi:10.1002/tesq.372

13.  Nadzan, S. (2018, July 28). Getting smart. Retrieved from https://www.gettingsmart.com/2018/07/28/flipped-learning-2-0-rethinking-the-flipped-classroom-model/

14.  Reidsema, C., Kavanagh, L., Hadgraft, R., & Smith, N. (2017). The Flipped Classroom Practice and Practices in Higher Education. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-3413-8

15.  Roehling, P., & Bredow, C. (28 de September de 2021). Brookings. Obtenido de https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2021/09/28/flipped-learning-what-is-it-and-when-is-it-effective/

16.  Snchez, G. (2021). The Flipped Classroom approach and the development of the English oral fluency. Universidad Tcnica de Ambato.

17.  Soliman, N. (2016). Teaching English for Academic Purposes via the Flipped Learning Approach. Elsevier, 122 129 . doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.036

 

 

2022 por los autores. Este artculo es de acceso abierto y distribuido segn los trminos y condiciones de la licencia Creative Commons Atribucin-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/).

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