Polo del Conocimiento
Pedagogical model for the teaching of english in university education supported by the students' graduation profile
Modelo pedagógico para la enseñanza del inglés en la educación universitaria sustentado en el perfil de egreso de los estudiantes
Modelo pedagógico para o ensino de inglês no ensino universitário apoiado no perfil de graduação dos alunos
Correspondencia: [email protected]
Ciencias de la Educación
* Recibido: 15 de marzo de 2022 *Aceptado: 22 de abril de 2022 * Publicado: 09 de mayo de 2022
- Master in Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo, Quevedo, Ecuador.
II. Master in Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo, Quevedo, Ecuador.
III. Master in Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo, Quevedo, Ecuador.
IV. Master in Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo, Quevedo, Ecuador.
The main objective of this article covers the requirements related to the process of teaching English as a foreign language to create young people and adults according to their profession. The study was raised using qualitative, narrative approaches. Content analysis was applied to the information received. Therefore, it should be noted that the pedagogical strategies used in the teaching of English involve traditional methods with an emphasis on the development of conventional teaching methods supported by formal language, include a small amount of didactic resources and reduce the use of school infrastructure. .
Keywords: Conceptual model; conceptions; methodological strategies for teaching English; pedagogical practice; categorize
El objetivo principal de este artículo abarca los requisitos relacionados con el proceso de enseñanza de inglés como idioma extranjero para crear jóvenes y adultos de acuerdo con su profesión. El estudio se planteó utilizando enfoques cualitativos, narrativos. Se aplicó análisis de contenido a la información recibida. Por lo tanto, cabe señalar que las estrategias pedagógicas utilizadas en la enseñanza del inglés involucran métodos tradicionales con énfasis en el desarrollo de métodos de enseñanza convencionales apoyados en el lenguaje formal, incluyen una pequeña cantidad de recursos didácticos y reducen el uso de la infraestructura escolar.
Palabras clave: Modelo conceptual; concepciones; estrategias metodológicas para la enseñanza del inglés; práctica pedagógica; categorizar
O objetivo principal deste artigo abrange os requisitos relacionados ao processo de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira para a formação de jovens e adultos de acordo com sua profissão. O estudo foi levantado por meio de abordagens qualitativas, narrativas. A análise de conteúdo foi aplicada às informações recebidas. Portanto, cabe destacar que as estratégias pedagógicas utilizadas no ensino de inglês envolvem métodos tradicionais com ênfase no desenvolvimento de métodos convencionais de ensino apoiados em linguagem formal, incluem uma pequena quantidade de recursos didáticos e reduzem o uso da infraestrutura escolar.
Palavras-chave: Modelo conceitual; concepções; estratégias metodológicas para o ensino de inglês; prática pedagógica; categorizar
One of the basic skills that education should contribute to today is learning English, as it is becoming a world language and is essential to access some jobs or careers. Another important factor is the use and exploitation of technology, which not only facilitates scientific development, but also saves time and works efficiently. Although some teachers have tried to innovate their classrooms with computers and multimedia software, the goal of students mastering the language has not yet been achieved. (Sánchez, 2009) Another factor to consider is that the pace of work is not the same for everyone, and some people learn more easily than others. To address the above limitations, it is proposed to review pedagogical models as a tool that allows teachers to change English teaching methods and make students more responsible in the study process. be the protagonist of their preparation and allow them to learn significantly throughout their lives. So please contribute to a proposal that promotes offline learning, uses technology as a learning resource, and produces better learning outcomes. This offer of information technology allows teachers to teach in innovative ways, while allowing each student to progress at their own pace and develop new learning processes according to their abilities. (RAMÍREZ, 2008) Another factor favorable is that, by using computers as a pedagogical tool to teach English, learners are not only motivated to learn the language, but also interact with existing technological tools in many disciplines. education for daily life.
Adults considering it essential to learn a second language. These concerns are reflected specifically in the case of the English language. Thus, in the context of Spanish, almost 30% of the languages are searched for in a survey carried out in the field of permanent training of workers, especially in English (García Ruíz, 2007). In fact, more and more citizens face various problems in the "digital society" to work, communicate or find information due to lack of knowledge or command of English. This means that even though more resources are available today, especially those related to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), it is still difficult for foreign language teachers and students to develop functional skills. Learning English as a foreign language is difficult and often generates anxiety (Delicado, 2011). However, mature students realize that achieving this has the advantage of facilitating many professional opportunities (Arenas, 2011). Perhaps because of this advantage, computer science and the English language are the subjects most sought after by both adolescents and adults (Colom, 2005).
The processes of globalization, the urgency to manage and stimulate networks of knowledge and the need to access scientific and technological advances and all those that facilitate human development, have made English an essential language to face the challenges that society demands. current, imposing with greater force the idea of considering this language as a tool that conveys interactions in the modern multicultural world. (Peña Ledesma, 2019)
In Spanish-speaking countries, business, finance, banking and law, as well as the telecommunications and information technology industries, are the industries that require the highest level of English. This is the result of the first global study on the use of English in the workplace, carried out by Cambridge English and QS. English at Work is a report that collects data from over 5,000 employees in 38 countries and creates a website where anyone can browse and interact with the data. To develop it, they asked some questions about the importance of the English language in the workplace. Surveys have been conducted of managers of several companies, and in the future "they hope to expand it to interview their own employees." (Richards & Rodgers, 1998) The results can be searched by region and country, depending on the industry and the size of the company. company, answering questions such as the real importance of English at work, which skills are used more, requirements for each type. career in the field of the English language or in which aspects we still have gaps in this language.
Graph 1. Benefits offered by companies to employees with a good level of English.
Fuente (Cambridge English)
The sectors with the highest level of English in Spanish-speaking countries.
It is of great help if you have an expert knowledge of English to deal with the problems that may arise when working in a language other than ours. In our country, the greatest demand for knowledge of English (advanced and native) in the areas of business, banking, finance and law, as well as telecommunications and computing. In addition, because Ecuador has a potential track record in the tourism industry, there is also a good level of English in the entertainment and hospitality sectors, but this is due more to the experience of frequent contact with foreign clients of companies. tourist. English proficiency is more practical than technical (everyday English). However, in all industries, there are contradictions between the English language required for work and what employees actually have. (Burton, 2011).
Graph 2. Influencia de las habilidades en Ingles para tener éxito según la profesión.
Fuente (Cambridge English)
Graph 3 ¿Qué nivel de inglés se solicita para las tareas del trabajo?
Fuente (Cambridge English)
Our country has one of its most important export assets, so it makes sense that since English is the global language of communication, "we are prepared for the challenges of foreign markets." For example, when carrying out legal transactions abroad, it is necessary to learn a special legal vocabulary to know what types of contracts we conclude and what we can gain from them. (Richards & Rodgers, 1998)
Education and benefits of knowing English
Language specializations are not normally required by industry, general knowledge of the English language is sufficient, although there are still technical careers that require knowledge of precise terminology. English must be promoted through education. Learning a foreign language is a long-distance race and perseverance is needed. The education departments of the different Autonomous Communities have been implementing bilingual education programs for many years. For its part, Cambridge offers educational materials for both teachers and professionals seeking to improve their command of the English language. In addition, companies are increasingly "rewarding" their experts who are fluent in the language. (Gustina, 2018)
How to determine the level of English required?
The greater our command of English, the better prepared we will be for the linguistic challenges of daily work. The skills discussed in the English at Work lesson relate to the test levels: reading, speaking, listening and writing. Translating this knowledge into daily tasks will be important to know the level of English required in each profession. (Richards & Rodgers, 1998).
Graph. 4 ¿Qué habilidad consideran los empleadores como la más importante?
Fuente (Cambridge English)
For a small business that only operates locally, there is nothing wrong with not using English, but those who want to grow will need to improve in that area. In addition, among the preferred evaluation methods in Latin America are interviews in English before hiring new employees and the presentation of international certificates.
Graph 5. Métodos que usan los empleadores para medir el nivel de inglés.
Fuente (Cambridge English)
Next, several pedagogical models are described to determine which one is the most suitable for teaching English using ICT as a support tool and adapting it to the development of this project. Constructivism is primarily driven by the contributions of three prominent psychologists in the field of education. On this occasion, a general compilation of the contributions of each person will be made. (Chavez Zambrano et al., 2017).
Cognitive development and learning. Wisdom goes through qualitatively and quantitatively different stages or stages. In each of these stages there is a series of tasks that a person must perform before moving on to the next, and this will be done by discovering and manipulating the elements that are presented to him, so that learning is an individual, almost solitary, undertaking. in which the person will learn to the extent that their cognitive development allows. (Estébanez Estébañez Cayetano, 1992).
Social Learning. knowledge is the product of social and cultural interactions, above all because, in his opinion, it is intended that higher mental processes (language, thought, communication, etc.) be acquired in relation to others and therefore what is available on the Internet : what a person can learn, according to their actual level of development, is said to change if they receive guidance from an adult or can collaborate with other colleagues. Obviously you learn more and better with others. (Hidalgo Panchi, 2012).
Cognitive psychology. It is not only learned when physical activities are carried out such as manipulation, interpretation, etc., but it is taught when the content has real meaning for the student (significant learning). For this case, the Apprentice subject must have in his mind the information that precedes the new knowledge, because by doing so he will be able to have a previous scheme on which the new information will be integrated. (Chavarro Sanchez & Laverde Laverde, 2009).
Not all students will be able to explore all the content, especially at higher levels, so it was crucial for this author that students connect what they already know with the new knowledge that the teacher will present to them. In short, learning is understanding, and therefore theoretically dismissing memorization motivated by behavioral theories. constructivism today. (Sanchez Armas, 2018) This model represents the most developed and enduring position of the contemporary pedagogical pioneer and has won the consensus of the academic, pedagogical and psychological communities of the modern world. Pedagogical constructivism unhesitatingly builds on the major cognitive and psychological achievements of the last century, treating knowledge as a construction of the person, not a copy of reality, and science as a builder rather than a "discoverer." of reality. (Cruz Inquilla, 2017)
Constructivism claims in the field of pedagogy to be the goal of understanding and intellectual development. And that is commendable. He addressed the main question of how to generate a conceptual change in education, opening the “black box” and trying to turn it into a “transparent box”; He is rightly concerned with students' early constitutions, their stability, and the strong resistance they create when trying to achieve meaningful learning. He recognized the active role of the subject in the entire learning process (Arias Gallegos & Llamosas Lazo, 2011) Therefore, he has certainly overcome the informative, cumulative and mechanical visions favored by traditional schools. One of the greatest contributions of constructivism is the recognition of the active role of the subject in the conceptualization process and the recognition of the existence of elements, nuances and individual meanings in the conceptualization process of individual actions. (Estébanez Estébañez Cayetano, 1992)
Active pedagogy. The main element of the difference that activism makes comes from identifying learning versus doing. Its objective is to learn by doing, trying to synthesize new school fundamentals. Knowledge will be effective to the extent that it is based on the proof of experience, so it is necessary to create conditions in schools for students to use and experience it favorably. The child thus becomes the main element of the educational process, and both programs and methods must be based on their needs and interests. This model assumes the following postulates:
Goals: School goals cannot be limited to learning; School needs to prepare for life. Synopsis: If going to school is to prepare for life, it is essential to study life and nature itself.
Coherence: the educational content must be structured from the simple and concrete to the complex and abstract. (Gustina, 2018).
Methods: View students as masters of their knowledge, proactively prioritizing the topic and their experiments.
Educational resources: they will be understood as tools that, by allowing manipulation and experimentation, will facilitate student learning, ensure learning and develop personal competence. (Estebanez Estebanez Cayetano, 1992)
Cognitive pedagogy. This century has made important advances in understanding the variables, characteristics and nature of learning. The reflection and investigation of cognitive theories has advanced significantly in at least three main areas. On the one hand, defining the nature and characteristics of learning, solving problems related to the mechanisms of learning and forgetting, the role of knowledge in this process and the ability to transfer the knowledge acquired to a specific area of knowledge. (Díaz L et al., 2010) The second area we studied was the neuropsychological foundations of learning, a study that looked at the identification of active cortical regions, their locations, and the cortical pathways along which cognitive tools move. these teachings are assimilated and integrated, as well as those imparted with the development of mental activities and procedural skills. A third aspect, although less studied, refers to learning variables, in particular the frequency of practice, skills, motivation and family resonance. Piaget's theory, based on the equilibrium bias, aims to explain how we experience the world and how our knowledge of it changes. To explain this, Piaget refers to two main concepts: assimilation is "... the integration of external factors in structures that are in an evolutionary stage or already in the organism..." (DÍAZ LARENAS & SOLAR RODRÍGUEZ, 2011). Assimilation would be, therefore, a process in which information from the outside world is incorporated into schemes or cognitive structures previously built by the individual. Residence is a complementary process to assimilation, in which schemata are modified in response to assimilated information. In this way, it is guaranteed that assimilation leads to a representation in accordance with reality and not with fiction. (Bañados, 2006)
In general, in learning foreign languages, the main obstacles students face are teaching styles and teaching methods. Although diverse, it is rare to use innovative or attractive methods for students. The best known methods to develop a process for teaching foreign languages include (Sanchez, 2009)
1) Grammar-translation or traditional method, with special attention to the teaching of grammar rules. Teachers' explanations are based on the mother tongue or the official language.
2) The direct method consists in the direct connection of a foreign word with the reality it means. Encourage oral expression and preserve vocabulary.
3) Audio-oral method that privileges colloquial speech (oral speech and hearing) based on reproduction or repetition.
4) An audiovisual method based on the use of auditory and visual resources to develop listening skills and speech understanding through interaction.
5) The communicative approach promotes language learning by communicating in a foreign language, even if it is initially frustrating for native speakers.
6) Project-based learning promotes the adoption of student-centered strategies through active participation, motivational development, and teamwork. It should be noted that the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages supports the task of developing linguistic, sociolinguistic and expressive competence. Special attention is paid to the use of pedagogical strategies that improve communication through timely planning, execution, monitoring or evaluation so that students express themselves adequately (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, 2002).
Another example, which is not widely used in the teaching of English, for which there is some experience, is an example based on a hermeneutical approach based on information and communication technologies, which allows to encourage motivation, self-control and creation of texts in foreign languages with adolescents and adults and promote their understanding of the language (Ibáñez & Castillo, 2012). It is necessary to strengthen innovative educational initiatives related to the promotion of foreign language learning to ensure its adoption as a good learning practice. According to Sequero (Sequero, 2015), the use of educational resources goes hand in hand with the learning method used. Also, currently, each didactic approach used to teach English in an EP must specifically include a combination of new technological measures. In fact, as (Lawley & Martin, 2006), ICTs have put an emphasis on learning English both inside and outside the classroom. Many people and educational centers today have the Internet and many digital devices that can help improve the teaching and/or learning of languages. In turn, managing digital technology is a challenge, especially for adults, requiring them to acquire new skills that will globally enrich their learning and comprehensive development. Currently, in Latin America, the teaching methods and resources used to acquire fluency in a foreign language have not yet given the desired results. In fact, the shortcomings and distances expressed by a large part of the population are obvious, as well as the rejection or fear caused by both the use of new technological devices and the learning of English due to their complexity and limitations. Initial experience. This position and the difficulties in mastering the language must be taken into account in the didactic project and its implementation. Therefore, according to (Delicado et al., 2009) when planning the teaching of foreign languages for adolescents and adults, teachers must take into account that this group does not learn like children and does not represent the same types of interests, needs, opportunities or times available. However, they can:
Having teaching and learning strategies that are helpful in educating children is also helpful in educating teens and adults. In any form of learning with younger and older students, it is important to agree on the objectives to be achieved, because by getting involved together you can increase your aptitude and, therefore, improve your results. In addition, when teaching foreign languages to this group, it is advisable to rule out possible failures and teach them to cope with pain and difficulties. On the other hand, they need help identifying relevant and reliable sources of information to be as effective as possible. Also, consider their learning styles, limitations and expectations to try to reinforce them in the face of obstacles. Learning a foreign language often does not require the same methodology and learning elements as the whole group. Although young people and adults are taught to learn a second language, they may find themselves at a disadvantage or marked by unpleasant past experiences that require different approaches and teaching methods together. According to Aguilar (Aguilar, 2015), it should be noted that working with groups in compensation schemes encourages the use of certain strategies. In addition, the acquisition of knowledge by this group is negatively affected by lack of time, work, personal and/or family problems, beliefs and ability to remember (may be less fluent than). In language learning, the attitude or gestures of the person present are of paramount importance, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are equally important. For this reason, when teaching English to teenagers and adults, teachers should encourage group classes from the beginning, which helps create an environment that encourages a willingness to learn, while also explaining the nature of the classroom. their daily usefulness, as well as their academic and professional performance. evolution. Creating a relaxed atmosphere in the classroom that allows youth and adults to relax so they don't feel withdrawn or embarrassed when speaking or asking questions will facilitate better communication. This can be increased if the teacher encourages the development of interactive activities based on the integration of different educational resources and if he keeps up with the progress of language learning. Another important characteristic of achievement motivation is:
Successful unit is achieved through a combination of innovative methods and resources that keep students focused; (Rubio Osuna, 2011) and establish a lasting association between academic preparation and life experience (Goethals, 2014). Therefore, mechanical and repetitive activities should be avoided as they lead to monotony and boredom and can cause lethargy or mental deterioration. Discussion and conclusions The results and conclusions presented can be transferred to other contexts, taking into account the uniqueness of each fact. In fact, generative analysis, unlike statistics, can be applied to different situations based on an evaluation of how close it is to the results and conclusions provided (Stake, 2010).
The reviewed research contributes to a realistic understanding of the subject and provides teachers with solid arguments to question and rethink about improving pedagogical practice, to think about revising the design and implementation of their practice, essentially in terms of didactic activities, strategies , content and pedagogical resources. means. and the spatial organization of group activities. In addition, Hernández (Hernández, 2012), rediscovered reflections on the need for quality education.
Teachers in Latin America, despite the lack of optimal pedagogical preparation, are responsible for their teaching style and have the academic freedom to decide on key issues of curriculum development and their foreign language teaching practice. Classes designed to learn English as a foreign language in adult education focus primarily on learning verbs, communicating grammatical rules, acquiring vocabulary, and small translations using the language officially as a means of transportation.
The latter is quite common in our country at all levels of non-university education. In fact, it is also promoting a series of curricular initiatives in compulsory secondary education (Cantero, 2008). They are disproportionately used to represent activities and content taught in English for youth and adults.
Competition. It is the use that someone makes of knowledge to solve a task with its own content and structure, in a specific one and in accordance with a specific context, needs and demands.
Read. To pass what is seen by what is written or printed, taking charge of the value and meaning of the characters used, and pronouncing or not the words represented by these characters.
Lesson. Instruction or set of theoretical or practical knowledge that each time the teacher of a science, art, trade or skill gives to the disciples.
Evaluation. It is considered as the critical and relative analysis that is done when comparing the results obtained, with the proposed goals; the achievements achieved, with the previously designed profile; the activities carried out, compared to those planned; the fulfillment of responsibilities compared to those assigned. Critical analysis that is consolidated by making value judgments to make decisions. Judgments that must be permanent in all stages of the educational process, in an integral way.
Motivation. It is one of the main engines that enables learning. Motivation corresponds to the needs of an individual at a specific time or in a special situation. The person will be motivated to participate in an organized learning activity if he/she realizes that it will help him/her to solve a personal, social or professional problem, or will make him/her happier. To the extent that said activity does not satisfy her desires or that there is no relationship between what is offered and her motivation, the subject will end up deserting. The motivations are various, among which being better informed, preparing for a new job, profitably occupying free time, interacting with new people, increasing their knowledge and income or performing better at work, at home and in the family.
In this way, the teacher becomes an important agent in the teaching of English, since he is consciously trained in the theoretical bases or in the decisions and visual concepts that guide teaching in the classroom. therefore, they directly affect the success or failure of students in learning foreign languages. teaching practice. Pedagogical practice is a methodological concept, different from what happens in the classroom, and includes the triangle of Institutions (schools), Subjects (teachers) and Subjects (pedagogical knowledge).”; Therefore, it can be concluded that knowledge plays a fundamental role in the implementation of TTSP.
This means that the strengthening of discipline is an important factor in the success of the goals set for a particular class, especially in this study of the English language. It is also acceptable to consider the following two postulates, in order to have conflicting elements, after using the information collection tools and carrying out their adequate analysis: The pedagogical practice is the procedure, the strategies and the exercises that regulate the interaction, the communication and the thought, words, points of view, positions, opposites and arrangement of school subjects. This teaching practice has six principles:
A) Facilitate contact between students and teachers. The relationship between them is crucial so that the former maintains constant motivation and finds the learner's involvement as manager of their learning process.
B) Encourage students to cooperate. Science grows when it happens together. Collaboration increases student engagement in the learning process
C) Promote active learning. Acquiring what you have learned happens only once, this knowledge becomes meaningful and useful in your life. This is a more difficult task because it is a constant challenge to establish the application of what we have learned in the narrow context of time and space.
D) Timely response. The regular support of the teacher to give advice, suggestions and timely corrections.
E) Emphasize the good use of time. The macro organization of time as an institution is not enough without the proper management of all its members. The correctly structured practice in all its intentions, procedures and strict adherence is a very important factor to ensure pedagogical success.
F) Respect the different learning styles. A wide range of learning opportunities arose from the belief that disparate souls converge into one person. The teacher's job is to identify activities and strategies that provide enough information to reveal the strengths of each member of the class.
Richards and Rodgers (Richards & Rodgers, 1998) state that teachers must objectively analyze the effectiveness and validity of their own teaching work and also critically reflect on what is discovered; therefore, inquiring about the methodological strategies and their relationship with the practice in the class, it is convenient to be able to understand and interpret the teaching actions, through the observation and description of the interactions, actions and reactions of all the agents involved in the dynamics of the classroom. On this point in particular, the methodological strategies and their relationship with the practice in the class,
In more recent studies, it was observed that the learning experiences of English teachers during their time in primary and secondary education were fundamental in shaping their current conceptions; however, its transit in university education was key to the restructuring and strengthening of these, which suggests that beliefs are dynamic and are reformulated as a result of a series of factors related to the context, the curriculum and the behavior and the expectations of your students. (Erkman, 2010).
Planning in the teaching of English. The learning planning process is considered a critical step in teachers' efforts to improve what they do. This is a permanent task of the teacher; A tool for your own practice, because the class work is not improvised, but related to goals, objectives and achievements in accordance with the educational objectives, the institutional philosophy, the pedagogical model and the characteristics of the language subjects.
In the teaching of foreign languages in English, there are many different strategies, methods, methods and resources that allow teachers, to develop their own knowledge, skills, abilities and values to practice good pedagogy; Therefore, teachers must plan their classes in terms of time, funds, objectives, documents, methodology, evaluation, portfolios; In the end, they will lead to teaching in the construction of changes and to improve the pedagogical work. Identifying learner characteristics performs several key tasks: providing the keys for selecting program content, formulating objectives, applying the most appropriate methodology, and assessing learner needs. That is the end; It should be noted that learning is individual, which means that each student exhibits different interests, so it is important to analyze her own needs to achieve a classroom design.
Also, consider the type of student's need, be it academic, linguistic, or both. In other words, planning can be seen as an integrated system, an organized whole, parts or elements within which are interconnected and still cohesive, where the priority is to analyze the individual needs of students and guide the implementation of activities, lessons . However, despite the fact that the act of planning has become more essential in the process of teaching English as a foreign language, many foreign language teachers do not like planning due to negligence or because they consider it useless, since many plans do not they are. always done. accomplished.
Situations can be based on perception, such as a discrepancy between the schedule and the actual class, as this can happen with well-prepared plans, but poor performance in class; or on the contrary, successful classes without a previous plan.
Survey applicable to university graduates
Objective: To determine the current situation of the students graduated from different careers in the English class and to know their opinions about the use of ICTs in the teaching-learning process in that area.
1. How old are you?
a. 22 b. 23 c. 24 d 25 e. Other Which?________________
2. What is your Career?
3. How many hours of English do you have in the week?
a. 1 B. 2 C. 3 days 4
4. What do you like most about the English class?
5. What do you like least about the English class?
6. What level do you consider you have of English (speaking, reading, writing)
a. low b. Intermediate c. Advanced
7. Why do you think you have the level you indicated in the previous point? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
8. Would you like exercises to be carried out in the English class using the computer or the Internet to learn the contents?
9. Within the Information and Communication Technologies are the Chat, the Forums, the Mail, the Teleconference, etc. Do you think it would be useful to use ICTs in the English class?
Justify your answer.
10. How important do you think English will be in your professional career?
The communicative or functional approach, like most of the methodologies already described, includes vocabulary and grammar as a common property, but adds two important elements: - concept; time, sequence, quantity, place, frequency; talkative; request, refuse, offer, complain, etc. This methodology supposes the use of authentic documents and contextualized content with a high personal load, where the error is understood as part of the process. This method has different approaches: - personality-oriented approach, thematic approach, functional approach - semantic approach and multidimensional synthesis of the previous one.
More modern and from a different point of view, the combination of different knowledge acquired at school becomes essential. This creates an excuse to treat him as a significant academic and experiential resource. Therefore, the most well-known and accepted thematic approach to language teaching in primary school. This approach emphasizes educational themes and prescribed content around them. Parallel to this approach, there is a procedural program that emphasizes the student, taking into account the substantive and cognitive development of the child. This approach allows children's experiences and interests to be linked to the activities and thus strengthens comprehension and memory when words, functions, structures and situations can be associated with a selected topic. However, in the specific context presented in our research, the implementation of this method will be somewhat difficult because it requires teachers to have very good skills in the foreign language, in addition there are requirements on Specific Vocabulary for each topic, project according to the scope. to which it applies.
A methodology such as the one described above, in terms of this concept of interdisciplinary use, is a content-oriented, project- and task-based teaching method. The aim of this approach is that learning is based on a hypothetical practical learning, with content coming from the general area of the curriculum, that is, a focus on academic and research content should be preferred Finally, similar to the interdisciplinary curriculum is the methodology of integral languages. It is suggested to start with the complete texts (story) and then study the linguistic details contained in them; while developing aspects of reading and writing. As soon as it is necessary to learn the basics of classroom development in the mother tongue to reinforce them later in LE.
When carrying out the pedagogical proposal for the use of ICTs as a support tool in the autonomous learning of the English language in students graduated from different careers, the following results were obtained:
1. It was determined that the class methodology that was being used was not the most appropriate because it did not provide motivation to the students and for this reason they showed apathy towards the class. It is observed that many of them present unachieved performances.
2. It was observed that the use of technology as a support tool is minimal, since only the computer and the Internet have been used to carry out searches.
3. From the test carried out using a survey as a tool, it was possible to establish that students find this medium very attractive and allows them to express themselves more freely.
4. The learning process improved due to the use of guides with examples and exercises that resorted to images so that the student associated the contents more easily, this complemented with the written exercise in the forum, where they were able to demonstrate the degree of understanding that they had on the subject and additionally it was shown which was the most difficult pronoun to use.
5. With the use of interactive online applications, a more positive attitude of the majority of students towards the English class can be appreciated, mainly due to the multimedia environment that is handled.
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